THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR (1754-1763)

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THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR (1754-1763)

Post by Admin on Sun Sep 20, 2015 6:36 am

Earl of Loundoun  -  Appointed commander-in-chief of the British forces in 1756, Loundoun presided over, and caused, many devastating failures for the British.

Major General Edward Braddock  -  The first general to arrive from Britain. He was killed in 1755 at the first battle for Fort Duquesne.

Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie  -  The colonial leader of Virginia in 1754, Dinwiddie was concerned about French encroachment on the Virginia border. In late 1753, he sends a 21-year-old major in the Virginia military named George Washington to tell the French to back away from the border.

William Johnson  -  Johnson began his career as the Indian agent for the colony of New York. During this period he was one of the most successful negotiators with many Indian nations, especially the Iroquois. During the war he became a war hero as well, leading the British to victory at the Battle of Lake George in 1755.

Lieutenant Colonel George Munro  -  In history, Munro met defeat as the leader of Fort William Henry in 1757. In literary history, he is a central figure in James Fenimore Cooper's classic The Last of the Mohicans.

William Pitt  -  Pitt assumed leadership of the British ministry in December 1756. His aggressive new policies for the war were a crucial part of turning the tide in Britain's favor in the latter half of the war.

Captain Robert Rogers  -  Leader of the Rangers, a rough-and-tumble force of men from New Hampshire. Operated as spies and participated in guerrilla warfare against the French to great success throughout the war.

George Washington  -  Washington began his career as a brash and careless diplomat and military leader. After being asked to resign after the Fort Necessity fiasco, he returns as a volunteer under British authority. The French and Indian War is where Washington learned how to be a leader.

James Wolfe  -  Major British general who led the British to victory in the Battle of Quebec.
French and Colonials

Louis-Joseph de Montcalm  -  Beginning in 1756, Montcalm took over as commander-in-chief of the French forces in North America. He was a much-feared and respected general who lost his life at the Battle of Quebec.

Marquis de Vaudreuil  -  In 1755, he became the governor of Canada, replacing the Marquis Duquesne.
Forts and Places

Fort George/Fort Duquesne/Fort Pitt  -  This centrally located fort in what is now Pittsburgh, PA changed hands many times during the war. It was the site of England's first disastrous battle, in which Braddock lost his life.

Fort Necessity  -  This hastily constructed fort in Great Meadows, PA was the site of George Washington's first defeat in 1754. Later in American history, it oddly came to symbolize the rugged spirit of the colonials.

Fort William Henry  -  Site of the most notorious massacre in colonial history, this fort located near the Hudson River fell to the French in 1757.

Louisbourg  -  An important city on the east coast of Canada (in present-day Nova Scotia). It was a French stronghold of arms and supplies.

Ticonderoga  -  A major French fort and city north of Albany. The British failed repeatedly to seize it; they finally succeeded in 1759.

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Re: THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR (1754-1763)

Post by Admin on Sun Sep 20, 2015 6:40 am

March 15, 1744-October 18, 1748: King George's War The warm-up to the French and Indain War between France and England, also fought for domination over North America. Ends with the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle and no clear victor.

1752-1753: Agitation grows Tension grows between France and England over competing land and trading claims. Minor skirmishes break out, particularly in rural areas.

November-December 1753: The message George Washington carries Virginia's ultimatum over French encroachment to Captain Legardeur de Saint-Pierre at Riviere aux Boeufs. He rejects it.

May 28, 1754: The first battle Washington defeats the French in a surprise attack. His troops retreat to Great Meadows and build Fort Necessity.

July 3, 1754: The French take Fort Necessity

July 17, 1754: Washington's resignation Blamed for Fort Necessity, Washington resigns. He will later return as a volunteer under British authority.

June 17, 1755: The British seize Acadia (Nova Scotia)

July 9, 1755: The Battle of the Wilderness British General Braddock's forces are defeated near Fort Duquesne in Pennsylvania, leaving the backwoods of British territory undefended.

September 9, 1755: The Battle of Lake George British Colonel William Johnson's forces win, making Johnson the first British hero of the war.

May 8-9, 1756: Declarations of War Great Britain declares war on France. France declares war on Great Britain.

August 14, 1756: Fort Oswego The French capture this fort on the banks of the Great Lakes.

August 8, 1757: Fort William Henry The commander-in-chief of the French forces, Louis-Joseph de Montcalm takes Fort William Henry. The infamous massacre occurs, later dramatized in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last of the Mohicans.

July 8, 1758: The French take Fort Ticonderoga

July 26, 1758: Louisbourg The British seize Louisbourg, opening the route to Canada.

August 27, 1758: Fort Frontenac The French surrender this fort on Lake Ontario, effectively destroying their ability to communicate with their troops in the Ohio Valley.

October 21, 1758: British/Indian Peace The British make peace with the Iroquois, Shawnee, and Delaware Indians.

November 26, 1758: The British recapture Fort Duquesne It is renamed "Pittsburgh."

May 1, 1759: The British capture the French island of Guadeloupe in the Caribbean

June 26, 1759: The British take Fort Ticonderoga

July 25, 1759: A Slow Route to Victory The British take Fort Niagara; the French abandon Crown Point. After these two victories, the British control the entire western frontier.

September 13, 1759: Quebec The British win the decisive Battle of Quebec. Montcalm and Wolfe, the commanding generals of both armies, perish in battle.

May 16, 1760: French Siege of Quebec fails

September 8, 1760: Montreal Montreal falls to the British; letters are signed finishing the surrender of Canada.

(circa) September 15, 1760: The functional end of the war The British flag is raised over Detroit, effectively ending the war.

1761: The British make peace with the Cherokee Indians

September 18, 1762: French attempt to retake Newfoundland fails

February 10, 1763: Treaty of Paris All French possessions east of the Mississippi, except New Orleans, are given to the British. All French possessions west of the Mississippi are given to the Spanish. France regains Martinique, Guadeloupe and St. Lucia.

April 27, 1763: Indian Wars Pontiac, the Ottowa Chief, proposes a coalition of Ottowas, Potawatomies and Hurons for the purpose of attacking Detroit.

May 9, 1763: Battle of Detroit Pontiac's forces lay siege to Detroit. That summer, his allies destroy forts at Venango, Le Boeuf and Presque Isle.

July 1763: Smallpox Men of the garrison at Fort Pitt infect besieging chiefs with blankets from the smallpox hospital. Soon faced with an epidemic, the Indians retreat.

October 31, 1763: Pontiac capitulates at Detroit Indian power in the Ohio Valley is broken.

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Re: THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR (1754-1763)

Post by Admin on Sun Sep 20, 2015 6:47 am

Say you have a friend, who's kind of a loud-mouth. He's a few years younger than you and infinitely more irritating, so much so that he pissed off some tougher, bigger kids. Now they want to kick his ass. Even though it's your friend's own fault, and even though you had nothing to do with the dispute, you still feel like you have to step in and fight on his behalf. The French and Indian War was sort of like that, except Great Britain was the older, sensible friend of the idiot colonists, and the French "bullies" knew a shitload of Indians.

The land known as the Ohio Country was perfect for fur trading. The French realized this, so they claimed it. The British colony of Virginia claimed it "second," which is English for first. Great Britain didn't care too much and France wasn't terribly interested in putting up a big fight over what clearly must have just been a misunderstanding. The colonists were, objectively, wrong. To apologize for the misunderstanding, the Virginian colonists started sprinting to the territory in order to gobble up land, take advantage of the fur trade, and annoy the living crap out of the Native Americans.

The French, hilariously thinking this conflict was still in the "words" phase, sent a bunch of troops on a peace mission into the forest to see if absolutely anyone in Virginia was in charge (nope!) A nearby colonial militia spotted the French, and being young, dumb, and full of guns, they thought it'd be real neat to sneak up and yell "SURPRISE!" With their guns.

Now, the French are fine if you're running around saying "Nuh uh, we own the land," but if you start wrecking their shit? They're going to have something to say which, in this case, involved recruiting a buttload of Indians and an even bigger buttload of bullets. Regardless of the outcome, the ensuing French and Indian war ended up being ridiculously expensive for the British who, remember, didn't even really give a crap to begin with.

On top of this, the British colonial smugglers continued to sell stuff to the French illegally throughout the course of the war. This kept the French well-supplied and the British well-supplied with rage at the colonists who, (once again), refused to pay taxes.

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Re: THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR (1754-1763)

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